Glossery of terms

Here are some explanations of terms that customers enquiring about our services might come across. If you need any further information then please contact us.

Key Terms


Pruning to remove dead wood, diseased and dying wood, split or broken branches and crossing or rubbing branches.


Pruning to remove the lowest branches which effectively increases the height of the main crown above the ground level. All the remaining branches will normally be above the height specified.


Pruning to reduce the crown size in all directions to leave a balanced crown structure.

It is a complete crown treatment and not just a reduction in height with no regard for the side branches. It is normally specified by the amount, in metres, that the crown is to be reduced by.


Pruning to remove branches as detailed in Crown Cleaning and the removal of further small diameter branches to obtain the required crown density.

These branches will normally be below 5cm in diameter and spread evenly throughout the entire crown of the tree. Crown Thinning will not result in major alterations to the overall outline of the tree. The volume of the branches to be removed will normally be expressed as a percentage of the whole crown and should be considered as an approximate guideline only.


The formal shaping of evergreens and certain species of shrubs. The exterior branches are clipped back by an appropriate amount to leave a formal shape. Interior wood is not removed.


Pruning of fruit trees in order to stimulate efficient fruit production. The method and timing of pruning vary between species. It is always intended to be carried out annually as part of an ongoing management programme.


In extreme circumstances, where the tree is in such a location or condition to make normal techniques for its removal unsuitable, advanced methods are utilised. These include, amongst others, tree removal using Cranes or Mobile Elevated Platforms.


Where space allows, the tree is felled in a single section using various techniques to control the direction of fall. When space allows, this is the standard method of tree removal.


Pruning in order to promote good health and form in recently planted establishing trees.

Carried out correctly, formative pruning can be the most effective means of pruning that a tree can receive. It involves the early removal of potentially weak branches in order that a framework is developed, allowing the tree to mature with a more balanced and structurally sound crown. Correct pruning carried out on a tree in its formative years places significantly less stress on the specimen than if pruning is left until maturity.


Branches will be removed or pruned back to suitable replacements as specified. Overhead service wires will be cleared by at least 1m, walls by 2m and branches over buildings given at least 3m clearance, unless otherwise specified.


During normal tree felling or dismantling, the main stump of the tree will be left in the ground and cut off as close to soil level as possible without further digging.

During stump grinding, the stump will be ground into chips with a specialised machine to a maximum depth of 300mm below the existing soil level over the width of the trunk cross section. Smaller roots spreading out from the main stump will be left undisturbed in the soil. The resulting soil/chip mixture will be left tidily at the position of the original stump unless otherwise stated.


Where tree felling is not an option due to confined space or other considerations, the tree is dismantled in sections. This operation involves numerous techniques including the use of ropes and rigging techniques to control the lowering of the removed sections.


Where space allows, the tree is felled in a single section using various techniques to control the direction of fall. When space allows, this is the standard method of tree removal.